Look – Out
Every vessel shall at all times maintain a proper look-out by sight and hearing as well as by all available means appropriate in the prevailing circumstances and conditions so as to make a full appraisal of the situation and of the risk of collision.
Every vessel shall at all times proceed at a safe speed so that she can take proper and effective action to avoid collision and be stopped between within a distance appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and conditions.
In determining a safe speed the following factors shall be among those taken into account:
(a) By all vessels:
1. the state of visibility;
2. the traffic density including concentrations of fishing vessels or any other vessels;
3. the maneuverability of the vessel with special reference to stopping distance and turning ability in the prevailing conditions;
4. at night the presence of background light such as from shore lights or from back scatter of her own lights;
5. the state of wind, sea and current, and the proximity of navigational hazards;
6. the draught in relation to the available depth of water;
(b) Additionally, by vessels with operational radar:
1. the characteristics, efficiency and limitations of the radar equipment;
2. any constraints imposed by the radar range scale in use;
3. the effect on radar detection of the sea state, weather and other sources of interference;
4. the possibility that small vessels, ice and other floating objects may not be detected by radar at an adequate range;
5. the number, location and movement of vessels detected by radar;
6. the more exact assessment of the visibility that may be possible when radar is used to determine the range of vessels or other objects in the vicinity.